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Tuesday, November 20, 2012

Doing Well by Doing Good - Modern Marketing and Management Science

A newly developed management software that reflects the principles included in this research paper is described at: http://dodat-primer.blogspot.com/

Doing Well by Doing Good
Marketing and Management Science in the 21st Century

By Samuel Sewell, Phd
(239) 591-4565


Eupsychian Management 

Eupsychian - Having or moving toward a superior mind or soul - from the Greek roots “eu” meaning good and “psyche” meaning mind or soul –


Abraham Maslow

Abraham Maslow, through his books and teachings brought us Management Psychology and is father of modern management

"The good society is one in which virtue pays."

"If you deliberately accept being less than you are capable of being, then I warn you that you'll be unhappy for the rest of your life."

"The fact is that people are good, Give people affection and security, and they will give affection and be secure in their feelings and their behavior."

Peter Drucker
Drucker's 39 books have been translated into more than thirty languages. He also penned a regular column in the Wall Street Journal for 10 years and contributed frequently to the Harvard Business Review, The Atlantic Monthly, and The Economist.

Peter Drucker also wrote a book in 2001 called "The Essential Drucker." It is a combination of the past sixteen years of Peter Drucker's work on management.

"I became an immediate convert--Maslow's evidence is overwhelming. But to date very few people have paid much attention." -- Peter Drucker, 1999

"He wrote it (Eupsychian Management) to bring McGregor and me down to earth." -- Peter Drucker, 1995
Douglas McGregor
“The ingenuity of the average worker is sufficient to outwit any system of controls devised by management.”

“Any attempt by management to enforce behavior that is contrary to human nature is preordained to fail. Conversely, management methods that compliment human nature are sure to provide wealth and well being for all concerned.”

John Nash
In “A Beautiful Mind,” Nash is at a bar with a group of friends when he begins to develop the theory of what is now called Nash equalibria, the idea that won him the Nobel Prize and the respect of his colleagues and loved ones, despite his schizophrenia.

At the bar, he and his friends begin to compete for a beautiful blonde in a group of five women. “If we all go for the blonde,” Nash says, “we block each other, not a single one of us is going to get her…and we insult the other girls. But, what if no one goes for the blonde? We don’t get in each other’s way, we don’t insult the other girls. It’s the only way to win….the best result comes from everyone in the room doing what’s best for himself and the group.”

The two most important conclusions gleaned from John Nash’s equations are;
1. More profit is created through cooperation than through competition.
2. Nice guys finish first.


 Maslow, Drucker, McGregor, and Nash is not a law firm. MDMN is an acronym I created to serve as a reference point for this discussion on modern marketing and management science.

For more background we suggest becoming familiar with the works of Peter Drucker, "The Essential Drucker." Abraham Maslow “Maslow On Management” (originally titled Eupsychian Management) as well as Douglas McGregor’s “Managing the Human Side of Enterprise,” and find out why John Nash won the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1994 .

One can hardly complete a business course on the college level without being introduced to the difference between the “Y” theory of management and “X” theory of management, as well as Maslow’s needs hierarchy, although it doesn’t really explain Maslow in relationship to management, nor do these classes provide adequate familiarization with modern management science for students.

This “Y” theory of management is significantly different than the old “X” theory style of management, which assumes that people are lazy, and will not work unless they are closely supervised, given directives, and essentially placed in an authoritarian environment which keeps the employees in line, and functioning in an efficient way, and that the more structure placed on employees and the tighter management is in that approach, the more efficiently your corporation is going to function. The “Y” theory of management says “We need to take into account human nature. We need to be managing in a manner that does not run counter to human nature. We need to actually be using human nature to our advantage. In other words, the work place should not resemble a concentration camp in any way, shape or form, but instead should provide opportunity for human nature and human values to flourish in that work place environment, so that in so doing you will have a much more effective organization.”

What is important about this is the big picture: Imagine a moral, ethical foundation for enterprise, for capitalism, in which any practicing person of faith, whether he be Buddhist, Jewish, Christian, or a person with a PhD in ethics who is serious about his values would not have to compromise his faith nor his value system in order to participate in that business. The usual reputation in the public mind sees the phrase “honest businessman” as an oxymoron.

St Augustine’s “The City of God asks: “If the principles of faith prevailed, what would society actually be like?” So, much like Plato’s perfect society, Augustine did the same thing. He actually tried to describe what would be happening in his mythical, perfect, City of God.
In 1965 Harvard theologian Harvey Cox, wrote a book entitled “The Secular City,” wherein he opined that if enlightened management principles were to prevail in human organizations, all of the things that Augustine envisioned in this utopian society would actually come into being in the secular world. Cox predicted a future much closer to things being done on earth as they are in heaven.

Another way of looking at it is described in Abraham Maslow’s “Eupsychian Management”, which has now been re-titled “Maslow on Management,” wherein he basically acknowledged that the principle of enlightened capitalistic ethics obviated the claims of socialism and communism. "Eupsychian Management”...could be regarded as Maslow's reply to Das Kapital." -- Colin Wilson, 1972 in New Pathways in Psychology

In other words, the whole premise of Marx is: Capitalism is essentially wrong because it exploits. Socialism and communism arose as an idealistic way of advancing human kind in general and stopping human suffering. The problem is that we know it doesn’t work and it results in an oppressive “big government.” Maslow advocated an ethical, moral way to operate capitalism.

John Nash’s work challenged Adam Smith principles in his “Wealth of Nations.”  “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations,” generally referred to by its shortened title “The Wealth of Nations,” is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith. First published in 1776, it is a reflection on economics at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and argues that free market economies are more productive and beneficial to their societies. The book is a fundamental work in classical economics. Smith’s ideas emphasized that wealth is created by competition. While accepting that competition creates wealth, John Nash’s work demonstrated mathematically that human cooperation paid off on the bottom line, with bigger profits than Adam Smith’s economic theories, which encouraged a kind of Darwinist “eat or be eaten” business atmosphere.

Benjamin Franklin understood that virtue is rewarded when he advised, “Do well by doing good.”

 When I taught marketing and management science in the late 1970’s I pulled together the curriculum for the courses I taught. I had read, Maslow, Drucker, and McGregor, in building my curriculum. Nash came later.  As I recently began to share these ideas with business friends, I would mention MDMN principles and they would draw a blank. When I mentioned Peter Drucker, they might have heard of “The One Minute Manager,” which is like trying to characterize the expansive work of Abraham Maslow by mentioning only his need hierarchy.

So, above is a summary of the big picture premise of what had been the new wave in enlightened management science; what I have called MDMN management science.  But, for a long time, it remained mostly ephemeral and theoretical. The most you could say about it would be, “Gee, wouldn’t it be nice if I didn’t have to compromise my ethics to run my business efficiently. Besides, everybody’s conscience is more comfortable. Their commitment and bonding to the organization is enhanced when they understand that this is an organization which does things right, as opposed to unethically, so that all employees can be overtly proud to be working for that company.”

“Wouldn’t it be nice” speculation didn’t get much traction with most of the business community.

The Further Development of Modern Management Science

So, for a couple of decades, after the inception and wide acceptance of this new theory by academia, it ended up being more attitude-based than skill-based in the business community. Maslow’s “Eupsychian Management” barely sold enough copies to make it worth being published in the United States. It was principally used at Harvard, Yale and Princeton, and by other management gurus. It sold hundreds of thousands of copies in Japan. Why? Because the Japanese business structure is significantly different from ours here in the United States, so it sold better within the framework of Japan’s corporate structure. The newer release of Maslow on Management is selling much better than the original version, now that Maslow’s ideas are validated by practical experience.

There is a reason why the boss in Japan is called Papasan. He is like a father figure. He actually cares about what is happening to his employees. If he finds out something important is going on with one of his people, no matter how large the corporation, if he doesn’t handle it personally, he will find someone to go talk to Ashikaga to find out how he is feeling today, or pass along congratulation that Yoka’s son was accepted at the university. They saw each of their employees as the most valuable asset the company had, as opposed to anything they owned.  Why is it a surprise to some of us that the most efficient style of management for a company would use the family as its basic model?

If we own an $80,000 truck, we take care of and maintain it; giving it regular tune ups and maybe even lovingly detailing it inside and out. We wouldn’t consider expecting our truck to perform at its best without giving it the maintenance it needs.

This whole idea of a corporate structure being an extended family is an attitude. So the next evolution in management science is that we had a group of idealistic managers who are trying to take this idealistic format, and somehow apply it to western capitalism, which was resisting the new paradigm, because the predominant management style at that time embraced the same style that prevails in the military, or “X” theory management. The way they dealt with their employees was very much the way soldiers were treated in the military; you try to get as much as you can out of them, and punish them if you do NOT get what you want to get out of them, and attempt forced loyalty; pep rallies, guilt manipulations and minimum reinforcement incentives etc, to keep the motivation up. Imagine a commanding officer who declared that all leave would be suspended until morale improved!

Training to Realize Potential

The implementation of MDMN management science began moving toward practical application with the emergence of the Human Potentiality Movement in the 1960s. This movement is strongly influenced by Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization as the supreme expression of a human's life (see APPENDIX One.) The Human Potentiality Movement asked the question; How can we use ethically positive techniques for interacting with and managing other people, and prosper by doing so?” In our organization, Best Self USA, a counseling and life skills training facility, we don’t look at what is wrong with people, but focus on what is right with them, discovering their potential and striving to enhance that potential for the benefit of the individual and the entire community.

One of the first ways MDMN management science got advanced beyond “just a nice attitude,” was in human relations training.  The application of more effective communication skills and mood/stress management techniques facilitated goals being accomplished without crossed transactions between people which cause anxiety and hostility. Other examples are in the application of conflict resolution problem solving techniques which allow coworkers to arrive at mutually created, collaborative alternatives that cause everyone to feel like they came out ahead in the game.

Then came assertiveness training. Assertiveness is a learned, rather than an instinctual behavior, and has a very moral basis. It is inappropriate for one to extend his will into other people’s lives: that would be aggression. It is also perfectly appropriate for one to assertively decide to keep other peoples’ will out of your own life; that is called self-defense.

Assertiveness was significantly advanced as a corporate training curriculum by Cal LeMon, a nationally-known speaker and corporate trainer. According to the Society of Human Resources Management, Dr. Cal LeMon has been designated among the "Ten Best Speakers in America." After an acclaimed career in the ministry that included serving as a chaplain at Harvard University, Dr. LeMon made a professional shift and began doing human relations training. He blends the business savvy learned from working with his Fortune 500 clients and a wonderful, unrehearsed sense of humor to create an experience audiences remember. All of these human relations executive skills are part of the training at Best Self USA

Partial Syllabus of Best Self USA Executive Training

Communication Skills
A. How to talk so people will understand, rather than react to how you talk
B. How to listen so that people feel understood
Stress and Mood Management
A. Making your biology an asset and not a liability (nutrition and exercise)
B. Using the tools of cognitive/behavioral science
C. Skills of meditation to manage stress and access intuitive thinking
D. Biofeedback Training
A. Assertiveness to replace deeply primitive instinctual responses to conflict
B. Preparing and deliver structured assertive interviews.
Conflict Resolution
A. Identifying the possible outcomes of managed and unmanaged conflict
B. Use a structured formula for managing conflict and creating win/win solutions
Personality Inventory
A. Completing a full spectrum personality inventory from a behavioral science point of view, rather than business oriented inventories
B. Discovering what is right with you
C. Summary of the results both verbal and written will be provided
Leadership Interview
A. Learn the psychological structure that facilitates potent leadership
B. Develop the skill of conducting a leadership interview
C. Become proficient in conducting leadership interviews in your professional and personal life
Consciousness Enhancement and Optimization
A. Explore the highest reaches of human consciousness
B. Evaluate your own self-actualized traits
C. Explore the science behind higher states of consciousness being a key to success in all aspects of your life
D. Learn specific techniques of creative thinking to give you an advantage over competition both within and without your organization
Planning and Goal Setting


The skills that Best Self USA teaches have come out of that human potentiality movement, and that MDMN management science paradigm.

So by now this MDMN management science has advanced. Now it isn’t just a good idea, which allows managers to have a clear conscience in running their corporations. We have added a few new skills, which validate the original assumption. That is where companies who have adopted this new attitude toward management are now. Companies pay top dollar for human relations training for both management and employees because they know that this training increases profits.

We also have to remember the mathematician John Nash’s concept that if one is unethical, in the long run you actually lose. The human race would have ceased to exist without good ethics and cooperation; hunting parties who worked together brought home the bacon, and women who knew how to fish by standing with traps on one end of the lake while women on the other end thrashed around in the water with sticks, so that the fish all swam toward the end where all the traps were; they fed the entire tribe. Hunting and gathering required the cooperation of the whole tribe. So cooperation is not only just a nice idea, but is absolutely essential to the survival of the human race. So, John Nash’s mathematical theories also factored into MDMN management science, in its present form.

The Problems with MDMN Management Science and Where To Go Next

So now, what is missing? A unique contribution that still needs to be made is to systemize all of this high-falootin’ theory and all of these forward thinking concepts and skills.  Through training, or perhaps computer software, we have the potential to revolutionize our lives and prosper in so doing.   Most of us feel pulled to want to work in this type of environment. So far, the business community has not given enough structure to these principles to create a dependable system.

Management of any type carries an inherent danger. Any pastor, psychotherapist or supervisor will be happy to tell you that many who work with them are in the process of working out their unfinished childhood agendas, and subconsciously see you as their surrogate parent. You can come up with examples of how many subordinates are doing just that, because you represent the parent. And whatever it is, it is your fault. MDMN principles greatly modify this parent/child transference by implementing, instead, a cooperative functional model devoid of authoritarian injunctions.

The problem that so many people have, including both employees and management, is in understanding that they don’t use ethical management principles just because it is enlightened. You also do it because you want to make money. That means one can be moral, ethical and respect his fellow human beings and become wealthy in so doing. "The good society is one in which virtue pays." Abraham Maslow.  

We can respect the basic human nature of both managers and employees. We can adjust the system in which they are operating to their basic human nature, rather than expecting the employee to adjust to the corporate structure. You can actually make more money that way! This is not some idealistic, pie-in-the-sky kind of pseudo science that only makes people feel good without having some bottom line pay off. One of the things I discovered in checking back into my research is that all of the ideas that we thought were so cool when MDMN was first launched are now incontrovertible. The evidence is so clear that by respecting the human nature of all people in the system there is more money to be made.  Not only is there more wealth with that kind of thinking, but it also wins Nobel Prizes in economics.

This is where one of the big problems comes in. So many leaders think they must be cynical, or stone faced, hard hearted, or that they have to take advantage of people in order to be a success. I can understand why. That attitude is based on a misunderstanding of Adam Smith’s original idea of Capitalism, that wealth is created by competition. How many times have we heard businessmen boasting that they “ate the other guy’s lunch?” which is a way to brag that they took advantage of a person by jacking up the profit margin to an unfair advantage, to the detriment of another human being. Someone who can sell iceboxes to Eskimos is not a salesman, but rather a con man.

Applying the principles of MSMN to leadership and marketing interviews requires a blend of the virtues of left brained, structured thinking and right brained human relations skills.  Each interchange, from qualifying leads to signing a contract, begins with the premise that our goal is to enhance the other person’s quality of life. For a brief introduction to the Best Self Five Step Leadership Interview, see Appendix Two.

The whole process of doing the Five Step Leadership Interview is linked to the concept of cooperation, as seen by John Nash and MDMN marketing science in general. So basically your marketing department (and it is very important for anyone in marketing to remember this) sees that the purpose of your interview is to try to determine whether you can enhance the quality of life for the person to whom you are talking. You are not there to sell them something they don’t want. You are not there to slick talk them, nor to persuade them into something they don’t need. You are there to determine their legitimate needs and desires, then to see whether your organization can meet those legitimate needs and fulfill those legitimate desires, and providing enough information that the customer sees the advantage you are offering.  

In the process of opening that gap of awareness (I am not currently getting what I want) and then filling that gap of awareness with what your company can do, you don’t need to make a sale. It becomes a no brainer. Of course you always need to do the close. Then follow-through in training and application is vitally important. We can’t allow those awarenesses to just sit there. These awarenesses tend to atrophy unless they continue to be refacilitated.

Finding a way to apply MDMN management science to the marketing department is one of the challenges. Frequently left brained, fact based administrators find it difficult to relate to people savvy marketing professionals. Over the years the old maxim “People who are good with numbers and not good with people, and people who are good with people are not good with numbers” has proven to be accurate. These differences are also delineated by personality type inventories like the Keirsey Temperament Sorter (KTS-II) by Dr. David Keirsey. Other personality type indicators are deficient and often only recognize 4 types. The Keirsey indicates 16 types with ample research as to how those types integrate with employment. (See APPENDIX Three)

If you do marketing and management science from a higher level of understanding of what needs to be done, you are going to end up with a far more efficient company that is going to produce wealth for everybody, not just for the corporation or the management. And the company becomes a good “corporate citizen” in the community at large. Everybody is going to come out ahead by participating in this kind of company.

Dangers and Safeguards of MDMN Marketing and Management Science

Just as every family has dysfunctional members, business communities also have their problem people.  Management must protect their “family” from dysfunctional and destructive people. Metaphorically, the goal is to not adopt problem children and to prevent abusive parents. One method toward this end is background checks to determine any former history of pathologies as well as determining appropriate attitudes and skills. This means resumes and background checks on social contacts, special interests and personal values as well as financial and criminal searches. But it needs to be more than that.

More than 80% of American companies use psychometric testing

This system of MDMN management science only works with healthy people. When making assumptions about positive human potential, those assumptions are predicated upon the fact that those employees are not psychopaths (see Maslow’s management assumptions in APPENDIX Four). So psychometric testing needs to be done to eliminate those people who should not be working there, or should not be hired in the first place.

Aptitude testing is another valuable tool. At least for significant people, especially agents, I would highly recommend for them to do psychological testing along with the aptitude testing and background checks. There are certain kinds of people you want in your organization. Aptitude testing will tell you the personality style of the individual, and where they will best fit into your organization; whether, they should be in administration, in marketing, or in management.

The fly in that ointment: If a potential new employee on any level has the correct aptitude and attitude but also has psychological problems, the entire organization will suffer. Thus proper screening is essential to safeguard the integrity of your organization. Many people with personality disorders are very charming and present very well. They are intelligent and talk a good game, but after the glow wears off they will certainly be a serious problem and may cost the organization thousands of dollars through dishonesty or damage to the reputation of the organization. Ordinary business oriented personality inventories do not detect psychological problems!

A full spectrum psychological inventory may not be possible in every case, but at the very least an inventory designed to detect personality disorders is indicated for all important positions within an organization, including contract agents. The inventory we use at Best Self USA is designed by Dr. John Oldham author of “Essentials of Personality Disorders” and lead researcher of the personality disorder section of the Diagnostic Service Manual. The inventory is “covert,” in that the subjects have no way of knowing for what they are being tested. **


Maslow’s Self Actualized Traits:

The Traits of a Self-Actualized Person

1.  They perceive reality accurately and fully.
Their perceptions are not colored by specific needs or defenses. In other words, their perception of the world is characterized by B-cognition rather than by D-cognition.

2. They demonstrate a greater acceptance of themselves, others, and/or nature.
Because self-actualizers have accepted both the good and the bad in everything there is no need to deny the negative aspects of anyone or any thing. They are therefore more tolerant of things as they are.

3. They exhibit spontaneity, simplicity and naturalness. 
Self-actualizers tend to be true to their feelings; what they really feel they tend to say and/or experience. They do not hide behind a mask and do not act in accordance with social roles. They are true to themselves.

4. They tend to be concerned with projects and issues rather than with themselves.
Self-actualizers are typically committed to some task, cause, or mission toward which they can direct most of their energies. This is contrasted with the preoccupation with one’s self often found in non-actualizers.

5. They have a quality of detachment and a need for privacy.
Because self- actualizing individuals depend on their own values and feelings to guide their lives they do not need to be in constant contact with other people.
            “It is often possible for them to remain above the battle, to remain unruffled, undisturbed            by that which produces turmoil in others. They find it easy to be aloof, reserved and also         calm and serene; thus it becomes possible for them to take personal misfortunes without            reacting violently as the ordinary person does. They seem to be able to retain their dignity even in undignified surroundings and situations. Perhaps this comes in part from their tendency to stick by their own interpretation of a situation rather than to rely   upon what other people feel or think about the matter. This reserve may shade over into  austerity and remoteness.”

6. They are autonomous and therefore tend to be independent of their environment.
Because self-actualizers are B-motivated rather than D-motivated they are more dependent on their own inner world than on the outer world.
            “Deficiency motivated people must have other people available since most of their main         need gratifications (love safety, respect, prestige, belongingness) can come only from other human beings. But growth motivated [B-motivated] people may actually be hampered by             others. The determinants of satisfaction and of the good life are for them now inner-individual and not social. They have become strong enough to be independent of the good  opinion of other people or even of their affection. The honors, the status, the rewards, the popularity, the prestige and the love they can bestow must have become less important than    self-development and inner growth.”

7. They exhibit a continued freshness of appreciation.
Self-actualizers continue to experience the events in their lives with awe, wonder and pleasure. Every baby or sunset is as beautiful and exciting as the first they had seen. Marriage is as exciting after forty
years as it was in the beginning. Generally such individuals derive great inspiration and ecstasy from the basic experiences of everyday life.

8. They have periodic mystic or peak experiences.
Maslow believed that all humans had the potential for peak experiences but only self-actualizers could have them full blown, since such individuals were not threatened by them and therefore would not inhibit or defend in any way. Generally peak experiences are the embracing of B-values.
            “Feelings of limitless horizons opening up to the vision, the feeling of being simultaneously more powerful and also more helpless than one ever was before, the feeling of great ecstasy, and wonder, and awe, the loss of placing in time and space with, finally, the             conviction that something extremely important and valuable had happened, so that the subject is to some extent transformed and strengthened even in his daily life by such  experiences.”
Maslow concluded that some self-actualizers peak more often than others.  The non-peakers (low frequency of peak experiences) tend to be practical effective people. Peakers (relatively high frequency of peak experiences) tend to be more poetic, aesthetically oriented, transcendent and mystical.

9. They tend to identify with all of mankind.
The concerns that self-actualizers have for other people do not extend only to their friends and family but to all people in all cultures throughout the world. This feeling of brotherhood extends also to individuals who are aggressive, inconsiderate, or otherwise foolish. Self-actualizers have a genuine desire to help the human race.

10. They develop deep interpersonal relations with only a few individuals.
Self-actualizers tend to seek out other self-actualizers as their close friends. Such friendships are few in number but are deep and rich.

11. They tend to accept democratic values.
Self-actualizers do not respond to individuals on the basis of race, status or religion. They can be and are friendly with anyone of suitable character regardless of class, education, political belief, race or color. As a matter of fact it often seems as if they are not even aware of these differences which are for the average person so obvious and important.

12. They have a strong ethical sense.
Although their notions of right and wrong are often unconventional, self actualizers, nonetheless almost always know the ethical implications of their own actions

13. They have a well developed, unhostile sense of humor.
Self-actualizers tend not to find humor in things that injure or degrade other humans. Rather they are more likely to laugh at themselves or at human beings in general.

14. They are creative.
Maslow found this trait in all of the self-actualizers.
            “This is a universal characteristic of all the people studied or observed. There is no exception. This creativeness appears in some of our subjects not in the usual forms of            writing books, composing music, or producing artistic objects, but rather may be much          more humble. It is as if this special type of creativeness being an expression of healthy        personality is projected out upon the world or touches whatever activity the person is           engaged in. In this sense there can be creative shoemakers or carpenters or clerks.”
This creativity comes from the fact that self actualizers are more open to experience and more spontaneous in their feelings. It is directly related to B-motivation.

15. They resist enculturation.
Self-actualizers tend to be nonconformists since they are inner-directed people. If a cultural norm is contrary to their personal values they simply will not adhere to it.

(Note: Maslow made no attempt to “popularize” his work and some of the terms used need further clarification)



This process is applicable to both marketing and management interviews

The raison d'ĂȘtre of any organization that hopes to survive and prosper is to improve the quality of life for all concerned. Thus the purpose of the Leadership Interview is to enhance the quality of life for the person being interviewed. Persuading people to behave in a way that does not include benefit for them results in poor human relations, buyers regret, cancelled contracts, poor morale, absenteeism, employee turnover, internal sabotage, “palace revolts” etc.

Whether the interview is conducted to provide leadership in helping a customer to make a decision that benefits them, or in helping an employee to become more effective on the job, the person conducting the interviews should always have in mind the welfare of a person being interviewed.

The Leadership Interview is a five step process.

1.  Introduction - State who you are, and the purpose of the interview.
2.  Increase Awareness of the gap between present reality and the desired goal. The purpose of step 2 is to create a “gestalt gap” that naturally seeks to be closed.
A.  Interview to determine the person’s awareness of the Reality/Goal Gap.
B.  Provide information to enhance the awareness of the Reality/Goal Gap.

3.  Transition – Shift from discovering Reality/Goal Gap to fulfilling Reality/Goal Gap.

4.  Close the Reality/Goal Gap by describing what you or your company has to offer.

5.  Finalize – Ask “Does this seem like a good fit for your situation?” “Are we on the same page?” Does this sound like a good thing for you?” Summarize the contract. Shake hands.

One of the biggest contributions psychology has made to business is creating a structure for a persuasive interview. Early examples of advertising structure were developed by John B. Watson, the founder of behaviorism in America.  He left his academic position and began working for the largest advertising agency in the U.S., J. Walter Thompson. He learned the advertising business' many facets at ground level. Despite this modest start, in less than two years Watson had risen to a vice-presidency at Thompson. Back in the 1930s he believed that in order for advertising to be effective, it should appeal to three innate emotions: love, fear and rage. Watson’s ads sold toothpaste, not because of its dental hygiene benefits, but because whiter teeth would presumably increase an individual’s sex appeal. Watson also used demographic data to target certain consumers and introduced celebrity endorsements. By today’s standards the work of Watson is primitive, but he did firmly establish the connection between the psychology department and the business school.

Modern contributions of psychology to the business community reveal more effective methods for persuading with ethical, educational, structured presentations, rather than through deceit or manipulation.

This type of structure for marketing is now becoming so integrated into American culture that you will recognize it showing up in 30 second advertisements on TV. Some advertising executives are familiar with the formula developed by psychologists. The problem is that they don’t understand where it came from, nor how and when to use it. That is the problem with trying to apply technique, without first understanding the underlying theory. Theory and technique need to be followed by practice and application before they can reach successful integration.

Here is an abbreviated form of the marketing interview (TV ad) from my own business prospective.  Then we will see a similar example from our anonymous John Doe VP of Operations for Acme Trucking.

1.    Introduction:

Hello! I’m Dr. Sam Sewell with Best Self USA.

2.    Increasing Awareness of Problem (creating a gap):  
Are you suffering from fatigue? Are you having difficulty trying to think in a straight line? Do you have human relations problems with family members or in the work place? Do you have moods or stress that seem beyond your control?

3.    Transition to solutions:
If you answered yes to any of those questions, Best Self USA can help.

4.    Closing the Gap:
For over forty years we have been helping people find ways to deal with those challenges that work quickly and have staying power.

5.    Sealing the Deal:
We can help you deal with your stress and function more effectively because now you know how to handle it.
Best Self USA – People becoming the best they can be!
Give us a call; Best Self USA, at 1-800-850-1987.
Your call can help you become your Best Self.

Now that took about 30 seconds and covered all five steps.

Now let’s hear from our anonymous executive, John Doe. It should be noted that the real life Mr Doe, who was trained by Best Self USA, did this completely extemporaneously, since I surprised him with a “pop quiz.”  He created an absolutely perfect 5 step marketing presentation right off the top of his head.

John’s brief presentation, for a video clip on the Acme Trucking website might say:

  1. Introduction:
I am John Doe, Vice President of Operations at Acme Trucking. We are the industry leaders working with entrepreneurs.

  1. Increasing Awareness of Problem (creating a gap)
As an entrepreneur, have you ever felt that you don’t have enough time in your day to complete all of your administrative tasks, while still trying to focus on your sales calls? Do you feel you are underpaid? Do you believe you are worth more, in terms of managing your income, and the percentage of income you are able to take home for all of your efforts?

  1. Transition to solutions:   
Frustrations like this are common in our industry. If you are experiencing similar frustrations, Acme can help.

  1. Closing the Gap:
We have programs that nurture entrepreneurs. We will take over your back office responsibilities, allowing you the time to grow your sales contacts. Because we have found a way to reduce administrative output, you will have more time for the things that generate your income. Our agents are experiencing a 6% decrease in their costs and a 30% increase in profits.

  1. Sealing the Deal:
If you would like more information on how this can benefit you, please contact Robert Wells at: (239) 123-4567. Bob will help you turn your numbers around so you can experience greater take home revenue, in less time, for your hard work.

John continues: What is different when in the field is that you actually have the opportunity to interview the potential client to see what their issues are. Then you add your own observations from working in the industry. In a 30 second ad there isn’t an interactive interview, so you have to assume the results of the interview and state it accordingly.

Remember that this very same five step interview process may take an hour when you are actually speaking with someone face to face. You might have recruiting specialists who bring you agents they may want to bring on board. I will discuss with them: “How do you currently handle claims at you office? How is that working for you? How do you handle tracking of shipments? When you are traveling, are you able to access your shipments via their TMS system?”


High-Level Description of the Sixteen Personality Types

ISTJ - The Duty Fulfiller

Serious and quiet, interested in security and peaceful living. Extremely thorough, responsible, and dependable. Well-developed powers of concentration. Usually interested in supporting and promoting traditions and establishments. Well-organized and hard working, they work steadily towards identified goals. They can usually accomplish any task once they have set their mind to it.
Click here for a detailed description of ISTJ.

ISTP - The Mechanic

Quiet and reserved, interested in how and why things work. Excellent skills with mechanical things. Risk-takers who they live for the moment. Usually interested in and talented at extreme sports. Uncomplicated in their desires. Loyal to their peers and to their internal value systems, but not overly concerned with respecting laws and rules if they get in the way of getting something done. Detached and analytical, they excel at finding solutions to practical problems.
Click here for a detailed description of ISTP.

ISFJ - The Nurturer

Quiet, kind, and conscientious. Can be depended on to follow through. Usually puts the needs of others above their own needs. Stable and practical, they value security and traditions. Well-developed sense of space and function. Rich inner world of observations about people. Extremely perceptive of other's feelings. Interested in serving others.
Click here for a detailed description of ISFJ.

ISFP - The Artist

Quiet, serious, sensitive and kind. Does not like conflict, and not likely to do things which may generate conflict. Loyal and faithful. Extremely well-developed senses, and aesthetic appreciation for beauty. Not interested in leading or controlling others. Flexible and open-minded. Likely to be original and creative. Enjoys the present moment.
Click here for a detailed description of ISFP.

INFJ - The Protector

Quietly forceful, original, and sensitive. Tend to stick to things until they are done. Extremely intuitive about people, and concerned for their feelings. Well-developed value systems which they strictly adhere to. Well-respected for their perserverence in doing the right thing. Likely to be individualistic, rather than leading or following.
Click here for a detailed description of INFJ.

INFP - The Idealist

Quiet, reflective, and idealistic. Interested in serving humanity. Well-developed value system, which they strive to live in accordance with. Extremely loyal. Adaptable and laid-back unless a strongly-held value is threatened. Usually talented writers. Mentally quick, and able to see possibilities. Interested in understanding and helping people.
Click here for a detailed description of INFP.

INTJ - The Scientist

Independent, original, analytical, and determined. Have an exceptional ability to turn theories into solid plans of action. Highly values knowledge, competence, and structure. Driven to derive meaning from their visions. Long-range thinkers. Have very high standards for their performance, and the performance of others. Natural leaders, but will follow if they trust existing leaders.
Click here for a detailed description of INTJ.

INTP - The Thinker

Logical, original, creative thinkers. Can become very excited about theories and ideas. Exceptionally capable and driven to turn theories into clear understandings. Highly values knowledge, competence and logic. Quiet and reserved, hard to get to know well. Individualistic, having no interest in leading or following others.
Click here for a detailed description of INTP.

ESTP - The Doer

Friendly, adaptable, action-oriented. "Doers" who are focused on immediate results. Living in the here-and-now, they're risk-takers who live fast-paced lifestyles. Impatient with long explanations. Extremely loyal to their peers, but not usually respectful of laws and rules if they get in the way of getting things done. Great people skills.
Click here for a detailed description of ESTP.

ESTJ - The Guardian

Practical, traditional, and organized. Likely to be athletic. Not interested in theory or abstraction unless they see the practical application. Have clear visions of the way things should be. Loyal and hard-working. Like to be in charge. Exceptionally capable in organizing and running activities. "Good citizens" who value security and peaceful living.
Click here for a detailed description of ESTJ.

ESFP - The Performer

People-oriented and fun-loving, they make things more fun for others by their enjoyment. Living for the moment, they love new experiences. They dislike theory and impersonal analysis. Interested in serving others. Likely to be the center of attention in social situations. Well-developed common sense and practical ability.
Click here for a detailed description of ESFP.

ESFJ - The Caregiver

Warm-hearted, popular, and conscientious. Tend to put the needs of others over their own needs. Feel strong sense of responsibility and duty. Value traditions and security. Interested in serving others. Need positive reinforcement to feel good about themselves. Well-developed sense of space and function.
Click here for a detailed description of ESFJ.

ENFP - The Inspirer

Enthusiastic, idealistic, and creative. Able to do almost anything that interests them. Great people skills. Need to live life in accordance with their inner values. Excited by new ideas, but bored with details. Open-minded and flexible, with a broad range of interests and abilities.
Click here for a detailed description of ENFP.

ENFJ - The Giver

Popular and sensitive, with outstanding people skills. Externally focused, with real concern for how others think and feel. Usually dislike being alone. They see everything from the human angle, and dislike impersonal analysis. Very effective at managing people issues, and leading group discussions. Interested in serving others, and probably place the needs of others over their own needs.
Click here for a detailed description of ENFJ.

ENTP - The Visionary

Creative, resourceful, and intellectually quick. Good at a broad range of things. Enjoy debating issues, and may be into "one-up-manship". They get very excited about new ideas and projects, but may neglect the more routine aspects of life. Generally outspoken and assertive. They enjoy people and are stimulating company. Excellent ability to understand concepts and apply logic to find solutions.
Click here for a detailed description of ENTP.

ENTJ - The Executive

Assertive and outspoken - they are driven to lead. Excellent ability to understand difficult organizational problems and create solid solutions. Intelligent and well-informed, they usually excel at public speaking. They value knowledge and competence, and usually have little patience with inefficiency or disorganization.
Click here for a detailed description of ENTJ.
As personality typing reveals, there are fairly accurate indicators to help determine which type will excel in various capacities.

I would not hire the NFs, my personality type for a position in management. I’m more apt to start the company, or come up with some innovative new idea that no one has ever thought of before, rather than being the structured person who can follow protocol to get results. I am always questioning the protocol. My type serves as consultants, from outside the chain of command.

Even the best sales people are SJs, so now it gets down to those other two factors. An Introverted, Thinking SJ (ISTJ) should not be in marketing. An Extroverted Feeling SJ (ESFJ) should be in marketing. Most of your employees should be SJs, but you need to make a distinction between the marketing department & management, because they have different skills that serve the corporation better. Every seasoned business professional knows about the personality differences between administrative and marketing people.

The good news about that is that the largest section of population is SJs. Why?  We need a lot more SJs than we need NFs. With a predominance of NFs, they would be going around thinking up new ways of doing things, when it doesn’t need to be done a new way. So, when you are looking at your source for employees, search for SJs.

 Here is an example of how it doesn’t work. In your business you will find that the agents are very similar in personality type to the people who work for FOB. But let’s assume we have a teacher who is a strong SJ. There are 16 different personality types in that class, but the teacher is going to connect with only about half of the students, because roughly 50% of the students are going to be SJs too. But the others in the class will be less able to relate to that teacher, because she will be apt to use teaching methods which mainly reach her type.


These assumptions underlie Eupsychian Management Policy
1. Assume everyone is to be trusted. [Everyone in the work group, not in the world. Ed.]
2. Assume everyone is to be informed as completely as possible of as many facts and truths as possible, i.e., everything relevant to the situation.
3. Assume in all your people the impulse to achieve...
4. Assume that there is no dominance-subordination hierarchy in the jungle sense or authoritarian sense (or "baboon" sense). ["No monkey business" as in Third.ORG -Ed.]
5. Assume that everyone will have the same ultimate managerial objectives and will identify with them no matter where they are in the organization or in the hierarchy.
6. Eupsychian economics must assume good will among all the members of the organization rather than rivalry or jealousy. [No sociopaths at the top, etc. -Ed.]
6a. Synergy is also assumed.
7. Assume that the individuals involved are healthy enough.
8. Assume that the organization is healthy enough, whatever this means.
9. Assume the "ability to admire"...
10. We must assume that the people in Eupsychian plants are not fixated at the safety-need level.
11. Assume an active trend to self-actualization--freedom to effectuate one's own ideas, to select one's own friends and one's own kind of people, to "grow," to try things out, to make experiments and mistakes, etc.
12. Assume that everyone can enjoy good teamwork, friendship, good group spirit, good group homonomy, good belongingness, and group love.
13. Assume hostility to be primarily reactive rather than character-based.
14. Assume that people can take it, that they are tough, stronger than most people give them credit for.
15. Eupsychian management assumes that people are improvable.
16. Assume that everyone prefers to feel important, needed, useful, successful, proud, respected, rather than unimportant, interchangeable, anonymous, wasted, unused, expendable, disrespected.
17. That everyone prefers or perhaps even needs to love his boss (rather than to hate him), and that everyone prefers to respect his boss (rather than to disrespect him)...
18. Assume that everyone dislikes fearing anyone (more than he likes fearing anyone), but that he prefers fearing the boss to despising the boss.
19. Eupsychian management assumes everyone prefers to be a prime mover rather than a passive helper, a tool, a cork tossed about on the waves.
20. Assume a tendency to improve things, to straighten the crooked picture on the wall, to clean up the dirty mess, to put things right, make things better, to do things better.
21. Assume that growth occurs through delight and through boredom.
22. Assume preference for being a whole person and not a part, not a thing or an implement, or tool, or "hand." ["What shall we think of a well-adjusted slave?"]
23. Assume the preference for working rather than being idle.
24. All human beings, not only eupsychian ones, prefer meaningful work to meaningless work.
25. Assume the preference for personhood, uniqueness as a person, identity (in contrast to being anonymous or interchangeable).
26. We must make the assumption that the person is courageous enough for Eupsychian processes.
27. We must make the specific assumptions of nonpsychopathy (a person must have a conscience, must be able to feel shame, embarrassment, sadness, etc.)
28. We must assume the wisdom and the efficacy of self-choice.
29. We must assume that everyone likes to be justly and fairly appreciated, preferably in public.
30. We must assume the defense and growth dialectic for all these positive trends that we have already listed above.
31. Assume that everyone, but especially the more developed persons, prefer responsibility to dependency and passivity most of the time.
32. The general assumption is that people will get more pleasure out of loving than they will out of hating (although the pleasures of hating are real and should not be overlooked).
33. Assume that fairly well-developed people would rather create than destroy.
34. Assume that fairly well-developed people would rather be interested than be bored.
35. We must ultimately assume at the highest theoretical levels of eupsychian theory, a preference or a tendency to identify with more and more of the world, moving toward the ultimate of mysticism, a fusion with the world, or peak experience, cosmic consciousness, etc.
36. Finally we shall have to work out the assumption of the metamotives and the metapathologies, of the yearning for the "B-values," i.e., truth, beauty, justice, perfection, and so on.
(Note: Maslow made no attempt to popularize his work, thus some of the terms used in his assumptions may need further clarification)


  1. The important factor here is that the executive coach does not direct or drive the executive coaching process. Rather their job is to provides an environment where the executive will come up with their own ideas and take responsibility for their choices and actions. The coach does this through a number of communication techniques that whilst offering support also act to challenge the executive to create new and innovative ways of moving towards their goals.

    Women Executive Coaching

  2. Sigsoogca,

    Sounds like Montessori coaching. Not my style. I am more about skills and a defined curriculum as well as evoking higher states of consciousness.